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Meet A Tree - Blog

Our Blog includes many interesting tree facts, educational information, tree care tips and a "Meet A Tree" Section that features a different tree at least once a week.  We try to post daily to keep things fresh and inspire you to love trees as much as we do!

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Arundel Tree Service

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The Kentucky Coffeetree -(Gymnocladus dioicus)

Posted on May 29, 2017 at 9:20 AM Comments comments (0)

The Kentucky Coffeetree -(Gymnocladus dioicus) - is a deciduous medium sized tree with large, coarse, wide hanging pods that are red-brown when ripe. It is best distinguished by it's large leaflets, large flowers, scaly bark and inflated fruit. At maturity it can reach 18-30 m tall and grows in an erect single trunked, with a low branching habit. The crown of the Kentucky Coffeetree is usually narrow or broad, pyramidal or rounded in shape. It is a member of the Fabaceae (Bean) Family and included in the very small Gymnoclaudus genus which only contains 2 species (the other is native to China).


The leaves are large up to 30 inches long, divided into pairs of opposite side stalks with 6-14 oval leaflets on each stalk. The flowers are greenish-white growing in large upright clusters at the ends of each twig. The bark is a reddish brown that becomes gray and irregularly fissured with age. The twigs are stout and reddish brown in color and hairy only when immature. The fruit is a tough, hard, inflated, red to brown woody legume that ranges in size from 15-25 cm long and 4-5 cm broad. Each woody legume contains 4-7 seeds that are hard coated and nearly round in shape.






The Kentucky Coffeetree grows in moist places, floodplains, riverbanks, bases of ravines and valleys. It is found in the Central and Eastern United States from New York and Massachusetts in the North, North Dakota in the West, Georgia, Alabama and Eastern Texas in the South. It is naturalized and planted as an ornamental further East. It grows best in rich, light soils. This species is unusually free of fungus, parasites and insect infestations. It is recorded that early settlers roasted the fruit of the Coffeetree for use as a coffee substitute, this is believed to be a possible origin of it's common name.




Image Citations (photos 1, 2 & 3): Jason Sharman, Vitalitree, (Node Affiliation: International Society of Arboriculture)




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The Sweet Birch or Cherry Birch (Betula lenta)

Posted on May 26, 2017 at 9:20 AM Comments comments (0)

The Sweet Birch or Cherry Birch (Betula lenta) is most easily recognized by the combination of fine and sharply toothed leaf margins, winter green scent, scales on the conelike fruit and dark brown almost black bark. It is a deciduous tree that can reach heights up to 65 feet, but usually does not exceed 3.5 feet in diameter. The tree grows in an upright form with a generally single eract straight trunk and a rounded crown. The Sweet or Cherry Birch is native to the United States. It prefers rich, moist soil, cool forest areas, mountain slopes, Appalachian hardwood forests. It can be found naturally occuring from New York and Maine in the North to Northern Georgia, Alabama and Central Mississippi in the South. It is not often confused with the closely related Yellow Birch as the bark is significantly different in not only color but texture as well (Yellow Birch has a yellowish exfolliating bark).



Image Citation: Rob Routledge, Sault College,



The bark of the Sweet/Cherry Birch is a dark gray brown to brown black in color, it is smooth when young becoming furrowed with age. The twigs exude a winter green aroma and taste when scraped or injured. The leaves are alternate, simple, paperlike in texture, obvate and and heart shaped at the base. The leaf margins are finely and sharply toothed. The upper surface is a dark green while the lower surface is a more pale green. The flowers occur in make and female catkins, the male are reddish brown and 7-10 cm long, while the female are pale green and 1.5-2.5 m long both occur in the late Spring. The fruit is a winged samara born in a scaly erect egg shaped structure that matures in late Summer or early Fall.




Image Citation: Rob Routledge, Sault College,





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The Dotted Hawthorn (Crataegus punctata)

Posted on May 25, 2017 at 9:15 AM Comments comments (0)

The Dotted Hawthorn (Crataegus punctata) is a small deciduous tree that grows to heights of around 30 feet at maturity. It generally grows with a single erect trunk with branched throns and a broad flat topped crown. It is native to the North Eastern United States from NB to Minnesota in the North through the Blue Ridge Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina in the South. The Dotted Hawthorn generally forms large colonies and is one of the more common Hawthorns found in the Northeast.



Image Citation: T. Davis Sydnor, The Ohio State University,


The Dotted Hawthorn is best identifed by it's dull green leaves and indented veins, pale ashy bark and spotted pommes. The pale ashy bark is grey and has plate like scales, The branches are a pale grey and are covered in grey thorns that are between 2-8cm long. The leaves are alternate simple and obvate or elliptic in shape, thin and firm with 7-10 pairs of lateral veins that narrow at the base. The upper surface is a dull green and hairy when young. The flower is 13-20 mm in diameter with white circular petals surrounding around 20 stamens. The flowers appear in early Summer season. The fruit is a red, burgundy or yellow pome that matures in early Fall.



Image Citation: T. Davis Sydnor, The Ohio State University,



Image Citation: T. Davis Sydnor, The Ohio State University,


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Meet the "American Snowbell" - (Styrax americanus)

Posted on May 24, 2017 at 9:15 AM Comments comments (0)

Meet the "American Snowbell" - (Styrax americanus)

The "American Snowbell" - Styrax americanus - is a deciduous shrub/small tree that is native to the Southeastern United States. It ranges in height from 6-10 feet with some even reaching heights of 15 ft in ideal conditions. It is native to damp woods areas, swamps, marshes, flood plains and stream/river banks, sometimes growing even in standing water. Primarily found in the Southeastern protions of the U.S. from Florida to Eastern Texas and North along the coastal plains to Virginia and up the Mississippi valley to Southeastern Missouri, up the Ohio valley to Southern Illinois and Southern Indiana.




The American Snowbell has showy and fragrant white bell shaped pendulous flowers that average 1/2 inch long. These flowers bloom from April to late May or early June (depending on the area) either singularly or in clusters of 2-4. There are five reflexed petals in each flower. The leaves are elliptic to oval in shape and range from dark to medium green in color. the top side of the leaves have a slight sheen to them and the undersides are a more dull grey green.



Image Citations (Photos 1, 2 & 3): Karan A. Rawlins, University of Georgia,


The American Snowbell is recommended for zones 6-8. It makes for a beautiful addition to any wooded landscape. It prefers full sun to partial shade and moist soil. It has a rounded shape and showy flowers that not only add interest, but also attract butterflies. There are not any serious pests or diseases that effect this shrub/tree. It is propagated by both seed and cuttings.


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Longleaf Pine - Pinus palustris

Posted on May 22, 2017 at 1:00 PM Comments comments (0)

Longleaf Pine - Pinus palustris often reaches heights of more than 80 feet tall and generally no more then 2.5 feet in diameter. It is a tall straight conifer with an irregularly shaped open crown with widely scattered limbs. The open canopy has as much daylight present as it does branches. Large buds growing on branch ends are covered with silvery scale. The trunk is long, straight and limb free. Seedlings go through a grass stage where it is simply a single short stalk topped with a mop like tuft of long needles. Peeling back the the bark surface will reveal a clay brown to rust red color inner bark.

Image Citation: David Stephens,


The needles of the Longleaf Pine are noticeably long, measuring 10-16 inches, growing in bundles of three. The cones of the Longleaf Pine are the largest of any Pine in the area reaching sizes of 6-10 inches long. The winged seeds drop out of the cones each Fall.

(Stand of Young Longleaf Pines) Image Citation: David Stephens,


Longleaf Pine has many marketable products. It is considered to be a premier lumber tree and is harvested in many different types of markets. Longleaf Pine Needles are raked, baled and sold as Pine Straw Mulch. In earlier days even the Sap was collected and used in making Turpentine and other chemical compounds. The large Cones are even collected and sold to craftsmen.

(Longleaf Pine cone) Image Citation: Rebekah D. Wallace, University of Georgia,


The natural range for the Longleaf Pine covers the piedmont and coastal plains regions of Southeastern Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana and Eastern Texas. Regionally it is also called Georgia Pine, Hard Pine, Heart Pine, Southern Yellow Pine or Yellow Pine.


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The Golden Shower - Cassia fistula

Posted on May 19, 2017 at 12:10 AM Comments comments (0)

The Golden Shower - Cassia fistula is a deciduous tree that reaches heights of 65 feet on average. It grows in a single erect form with branching at the ground with ascending branches. It was originally introduced from Southeast Asia and is cultivated in warmer climates and naturalized very sparingly in Florida. There are three species of Cassia that are reported to occur in Florida but none are considered to be naturalized, they include The Pink Shower (Cassia grandis), African Pipe Cassia (Cassia afrofistula) and Pink Shower/Apple Blossom (Cassia javanica). The Genus Cassia once included many more plants that have since been divided into three different genera, Cassia, Chamaecristaand Senna. Cassia are a member of the Fabaceae (Bean/Pea Family) which is made up of 730 genera and over 19,000 species, it is the third largest plant family in the world outnumbered only by the Asteraceae (Sunflower) and Orchiaceae (Orchid) families.



Image Citation: Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental,


The Golden Shower is easily identified by the combination of evenly compounded leaves, large leaflets and very showy yellow flowers. The bark is grey and smooth, becoming more rough and dark with age. The leaves are alternate, pinnate and divided into an even number of leaflets. The flowers are bisexual, 3-6 cm in diameter, with 5 petals that are pale or bright yellow. The flowers occur in Spring to Summer. The fruit is narrow, cylindrical, lustrous, dark brown legumes that are 30-60 cm long. The fruit matures in Summer to Fall.



Image Citation: Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental,




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The Bigleaf Magnolia - Magnolia macrophylla

Posted on May 17, 2017 at 10:05 AM Comments comments (0)

The Bigleaf Magnolia (Magnolia macrophylla) is most easily recognized by it's very large leaves, flowers and cone-like fruit. It is a deciduous tree that can reach heights of up to 60 feet. The Bigleaf Magnolia has a single erect trunk with a pyramidal shaped crown and spreading branches. It is native to moist, rich woodlands and slopes from Louisiana to Georgia in the south and Southern Indiana to West Virginia in the North. This species is also cultivated outside of it's native range for ornamental purposes. The Ashe's Magnolia is similar in appearance but the native ranges do not overlap.




The bark of the Bigleaf Magnolia is pale grey or yellow-brown, smooth or slightly bumpy with inconspicuous plates. The leaves are borne in whorl like clusters that occur near the branch tips. They are simple obvate to broadly elliptical, wider around the middle. The upper surface is dark green and hairless while the lower is surface is white chalky and hairy. The flowers are fragrant, showy, creamy white in color, with a purple blotch at the base. The fruit is a cone like aggregate of folicles that are round or slightly egg shaped, red when aged and splitting to reveal orange-red seeds that are 10-12 mm long. The fruit matures in late summer.



Image Citations (Photos 1 & 2): Amy Gilliss, Arundel Tree Service, Location-Mingo County, West Virginia



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The Honey Locust - Gleditsia triacanthos

Posted on May 12, 2017 at 2:25 PM Comments comments (0)

The Honey Locust - Gleditsia triacanthos is a large deciduous tree with an open spreading crown and branched spines growing from the trunk and branches. It is most easily recognized by the combination of pinnate and bipinnate leaves, large visible thorns and elongated legume. Known to reach heights of 80-140 feet, they are considered a medium to large tree. Though in most areas it reaches an average of 65-100 feet. The fruit is a flat black - brown hairy pod (legume) often a foot or more long and twisted in appearance. The leaves each have 7-16 pairs of leaflets and are a true green color during the growing season changing in the fall to a lovely yellow color. Flowers are greenish-yellow, bell shaped and grow in small upright symmetrical clusters. The bark is red when young becoming brown and deeply furrowed with narrow ridges when mature.

This tree grows naturally in many habitats throughout the Eastern United States from Pennsylvania in the North to Nebraska and Texas in the South. The cultivated forms often lack the prickly spines that many tree workers dread working around and are much preferred in residential and urban settings. Recommended for hardiness zones 3-9, the Honey Locust is a shade tree capable of completely blocking sunlight to areas below. Honey Locust's are fast growers gaining as much as 24 inches each year. They prefer full sunlight or at least 6 hours per day and are tolerant of wet and dry sites, salt, compacted soil, pollution and most other urban stresses.


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The Smoketree - Cotinus coggygria

Posted on May 10, 2017 at 1:55 PM Comments comments (0)

The Smoketree - Cotinus coggygria - is a small deciduous tree and a native of the wooded hills above the Mediterranean. Named for it's blooms of wispy filaments in either pink or cream that look like poofs of smoke radiating from the trees branches. In some areas the tree is nicknamed the Mist Tree, Cloud Tree or even Jupiter's Beard. It is a relatively low maintenance shrub/small tree classified as an ornamental. With a max height of 10-15 ' tall and a spread of 12 ', the Smoketree grows at a medium rate of just 12-24 inches per year.





In addition to it's smoky filaments this tree also produces flowers from June to September that are not very noticeable they are yellow-pink to plain pink in color and are often hidden by the wispy hairlike filaments. The leaves are small 1 1/4 to 4 inches long and a pretty blue green in color in season, changing yellow, purple and red in the fall. When crushed the branches and leaves have an almost citrus smell often compared to an orange.



Image Citation:(1&2) The Dow Gardens Archive, Dow Gardens,


Introduced in the America's in the mid 1600's, this tree makes for an interesting addition to any home/commercial landscape and is recommended for hardiness zones 5-8. It is not particular when it comes to soil types and can handle both wet soil and semi drought conditions with ease. This variety has been naturalized in ranges North of the American Smoketree from Illinois, Ohio, Maryland on North through Ontario and Vermont. It is cultivated in the South as a specimen tree and is often found more often then the American Smoketree in this application.


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Slippery Elm - Ulmus rubra

Posted on May 8, 2017 at 1:20 PM Comments comments (0)

The Slippery Elm - Ulmus rubra is a medium sized tree that seldom reaches heights of more then 70 feet tall when fully mature.  When grown in an open area this tree tends to have a broad crown with long tapering branches and upward turned twigs.  From a distance the crown is sometimes described as two open hands touching at the wrist and then spreading away from one another.  The Slippery Elm is native to the Eastern United States from Maine to North Dakota in the North and Florida to Texas in the South.  Slippery Elm is not typically planted as an ornamental tree, but does provide shade by growing upright along fencerows that are already established.  

Image Citation: Rob Routledge, Sault College,

The bark of the Slippery Elm ranges in color from light silvery gray to reddish brown.  The texture of the bark is a matrix of thin, wide, tight, flat topped, rough ridges with rounded edges divided by shallow irregularly shaped valleys.  The bark plates often appear to be more of a plastered collection then divided from one another by ridges and valleys.  The leaves are double toothed 4-7 inches long and 2-3 inches wide, more or less oval in overall shape.  The upper leaf surface is dull in luster and dark green in color, rough in texture similar to sandpaper.  The lower leaf surface is is very hairy and also rough to the touch.  The fruit is a very small, flat, papery, circular, winged disk that is borne each Spring.  

Image Citation: Paul Wray, Iowa State University,

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The Devil's Walking Stick -Aralia spinosa

Posted on May 5, 2017 at 9:20 AM Comments comments (0)

The Devil's Walking Stick -Aralia spinosa is best known for it's prickly trunk, umbrella form, and bi-pinnate or tri-pinnate leaves. It is a deciduous shrub or small tree that only reaches heights of only 30 feet tall. It is a member of the Ginseng family (Araliaceae). The main trunk is erect with a single trunk with little or very few ascending branches, the leaves are spreading and grouped near the top of the plant. It is considered to be invasive or annoying by many landowners and gardeners as the plant "pops" up at will and is often hard to kill without grinding out the root system. The Devil's Walking Stick propagates with a rhizomatous root system that extends just below the ground to create a cluster of plants in loose congregation. The individual stems are ramets, or clones, of the singular parent. It is often times also called Hercules Club, Prickly Ash, Angelica Tree, Toothache Tree, Prickly Elder, Pigeon Tree, Pick Tree, Mississippi Hoe Handle, or Shotbush depending on the region.



Image Citation: Karan A. Rawlins, University of Georgia,


Devil's Walking Stick was also for medicinal purposes by the Native Americans and Colonial Americans. A decoction of the bark was used to break a fever by increasing perspiration and for intestinal discomfort because of its emetic and purgative properties. The roots were mashed and cooked down to make a topical treatment that was used to treat boils and other skin irritations. Colonial Americans, notably those of African descent, used a similar topical treatment after a snakebite. The water used to boil the roots to craft topical treatments was also retained to treat eye irritations. Devil's Walking Stick is mildly toxic if ingested in sufficient quantities. The toxins are concentrated in the seeds of the berries and can cause gastrointestinal disturbances both mild and severe depending on amounts ingested. There is some theory that Devil's Walking Stick has been the cause of livestock poisoning. In spite of the soft and weak properties of the wood, it has been used to craft small boxes, picture frames, pens, and rocking chairs arms. The stems if cut in the early Spring can be stripped of their thorny external skin and made into plant stakes and ironically walking sticks. It was planted as an ornamental in English gardens during the late 19th Century as a contrarious gesture to conformity as it has a natural appearance that is in no way formal. Today it is not sold or marketed as an ornamental as it is not an ideal planting for any landscape other then a natural one, if planted it is used mainly in reforestation areas.



Image Citation: Karan A. Rawlins, University of Georgia,


The Devils Walking Stick is native to woodland areas, undisturbed lands, thickets, bogs and pine margins from Maine to Central Florida in the East and Missouri to Eastern Texas in the West. It is generally found between 0-1500 meters in elevation. There are only two non-native tree sized species of Aralia that are naturalized in North America, The Japanese Angelica Tree and The Chinese Angelica Tree, both are similar in appearance but not necessarily in size. The bark of the Devils Walking Stick is brown, smooth with slightly rough sections that bear obvious prickles that are very painful when making contact with the skin. The branches are stout, prickly and often have large encircling leaf scars. The leaves are alternate, bi-pinnate or tri-pinnate, compound, with triangular blades, numerous leaflets and a short stalk. The leaves are dark green on the upper surface and pale green on the lower, in the fall the leaves change to a rust or bronze color. The flowers are made up of tiny white petals and sepals, five of each, inflorescence and a large terminal compound panicle. The flowers appear in the early Summer. The fruit is round, 5 stoned purple-black, or lavender drupe that is 5-8 mm long and matures in the Fall.




Image Citation ( 2 Photos- Trunk/Stem and Fall Leaves): Chris Evans, University of Illinois,




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The Georgia Plume - Elliottia racemosa

Posted on May 5, 2017 at 12:00 AM Comments comments (0)

The Georgia Plume - Elliottia racemosa, is most easily recognized by the large plume like inflorescence of white flowers that appears in late June each year. It is a deciduous shrub or small tree that reaches heights of 6 - 36 feet tall, growing in an erect fashion with a single trunk and narrow crown. It is native though rare in only a few locations in Georgia. Elliottia is a small genus of 4 species, two of which are endemic to Japan and 2 to North America, one of which is a Western shrub.

Image Citation: James Henderson, Golden Delight Honey,

The bark of the Georgia Plume is gray and furrowed when young, becoming blocky and similar to that o the Sourwood when mature.  The leaves are alternate, simple, ovate, oblong or narrowly elliptic with a tapered base and abruptly pointed tip.  The upper leaf surface is dark green and hairless, the lower surface is paler and sparsely haired.  The flower is bi-sexual about 2 cm long with 4 petals, white in color produced in showy terminal racemes or panicles.  The fruit is a four lobed brown or blackish colored capsule that is approximately 1 cm in diameter maturing each Autumn and persisting into the Winter each year.

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The Sawtooth Oak - Quercus acutissima

Posted on April 28, 2017 at 1:15 PM Comments comments (0)

The Sawtooth Oak - Quercus acutissima is most easily recognized by it's fringed acorn cup and narrow leave with bristle tipped teeth, resembling the teeth of a saw. It is a fast growing, deciduous shade tree that can reach heights of 30- 70 feet tall. Sawtooth Oak grows in an erect fashion with a single trunk and dense rounded crown. Originally introduced from Asia, generally found in planned landscapes and is reported to be naturalized in scattered areas from Pennsylvania South to North Carolina and Georgia, South to Louisiana. Sawtooth Oak is primarily planted for wildlife cover and food due to it's abundant fruit and fast growth habit. This species is sometimes used for urban and highway beautification as it is tolerant of soil compaction, air pollution, and drought.






Image Citations (Photos 1 & 2): Richard Gardner, UMES,


Named for it's unique leaf edges, the Sawtooth Oak is a beautiful tree. The green leaves are alternate, simple, oblong or obvate, 12-16 pairs of sharp bristle tipped teeth, parallel veins and a lustrous upper surface and dull pale underside. The leaves add to the visual interest by beginning a brilliant yellow to golden yellow color in the Spring, turning dark lustrous green in summer and yellow to golden brown in the fall. The bark is dark gray in color with light gray scales that become deeply furrowed with age. The fruit is in the form of an acorn, the cup encloses 1/3 - 2/3 of the 1-2.5 cm nut. The acorn rim is adorned with long spreading hairlike scales that form a distinctive fringe.



Recommended for hardiness zones 5-9, the Sawtooth Oak can be found at most larger nurseries within those zones. Sawtooth Oak is also considered to be easily transplanted and hardy making it a wise choice for any landscape with room for a large spreading shade tree. It is similar to the Chinquapin Oak Castanea pumila in appearance, distinguished primarily by the difference in fruit.


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September Elm - Ulmus serotina

Posted on April 27, 2017 at 10:30 AM Comments comments (0)

September Elm - Ulmus serotina, is most easily recognized by the combination of alternate simple, double toothed leaves, mature branches with corky wings and Autumn flowering and fruiting.  It is a deciduous tree that can reach heights of up to 65 feet tall, it grows in an erect form with a single trunk and spreading crown.  It is native to the limestone bluffs, bottomlands and hillsides of Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Oklahoma, Texas and Illinois but is rare even within it's native growth range.  The September Elm can hybridize with the Cedar Elm though the offspring are difficult to assign to species.  

Image Citation: By K6tmk6 - Originally uploaded on 2010-07-04 as File:Ulmus Serotina2.JPG by K6tmk6., Public Domain," target="_blank">

The leaves are alternate, simply shaped, with an abruptly pointed short point.  The upper leaf surface is a yellow-green color, hairless, with parallel veins and distinctively forked margins.  The lower leaf surface is a yellowish gold color with soft hairs.  The flowers have 5-6 sepals and occur from Summer to Autmn each year.  The fruit is ovoid to elliptic with 1 seed, light brown samara, 1 - 1 1/2 cm long with a notched apex, maturing in Autumn.  

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The Alternateleaf Dogwood - Cornus alternifolia

Posted on April 25, 2017 at 2:45 PM Comments comments (0)

The Alternateleaf Dogwood - Cornus alternifolia, is a small deciduous tree or large shrub that reaches heights of only 15-30 feet tall on average. The Alternateleaf Dogwood has a very distinct layered horizontal branching structure, it is the only Eastern Dogwood with alternate rather then opposite leaves. Native to moist rich woods, slopes, ravines, thickets, stream and river banks, swamp margins, and floodplains from 50-1900 m, throughout the Eastern United States and Canada. It can be found growing from Manitoba east to New Foundland, South to Northwestern Florida, Arkansas and Mississippi. Similar in appearance to the Flowering Dogwood with the exception of the leaves being alternate instead of opposed, and it's flower clusters are subtended by large showy white bracts.




Image Citation: Dow Gardens , Dow Gardens,


The leaf of the Alternateleaf Dogwood is alternate, simple in shape ovate or oval with a rounded or wedged shaped base and abruptly tapered tip. The flowers are individually tiny, creamy white in color and produced in a showy flat topped or convex inflorescence that is 3-6 cm broad, from Spring to early Summer each year. The fruit is rounded and sparsely hairy in the form of a blue drupe that is 4-7 mm in diameter, occurring on red colored stalks every Fall.




Image Citation: Paul Wray, Iowa State University,


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